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'''Tema''' is a city on the [[Atlantic Ocean|Atlantic]] coast of [[Ghana]], lying {{convert|25|km|mi}} east of the Ghanaian capital city, [[Accra]], in the region of [[Greater Accra]]. As of 2012, Tema has a population of approximately 160,939, a marked decrease from its 2005 figure of 209,000.<ref name="GW">[] Tema</ref> The [[Greenwich Meridian]] (00 [[Longitude]]) passes directly through the city.<ref name="GHD">[]</ref> Tema is locally nicknamed the "Harbour City" because of its status as Ghana's largest [[seaport]].

A [[planned city]] commissioned by Ghana's first president, [[Kwame Nkrumah]], Tema was originally a small fishing village, and grew after the construction of a large [[harbour]] in 1961. It is now the nation's largest seaport, home to an [[oil refinery]] and many [[manufacturing]] centres, and is linked to the capital by railway and a highway. Tema is one of Ghana's two deep seaports, the other being [[Sekondi-Takoradi]].<ref name="GHD"/>

Before [[History of Ghana#Independent Ghana|Ghana's independence]], the government identified a small fishing village called Torman as the projected site for a modern sea port to serve the new Ghana. Torman residents grew the gourd plant known as ''Tor'' in the local [[Ga language]], from which a variety of products could be obtained, including ''tsene'' ([[calabash]]), ''akpaki'' and ''akoji''; hence the name ''Torman'' ("Gourd Town"). This name was eventually [[linguistic corruption|corrupted]] to "Tema".<ref name=""/> 

In 1952, the government acquired {{convert|166|km2|mi2}} of land north of the harbour, and entrusted it to the Tema Development Corporation. The “New Town” that was subsequently built on the site was planned as an industrial and residential complex. The villagers of Torman were ejected to make way for the project, and migrated to a new fishing ground around {{convert|3|km|mi}} away.<ref name=""/> 

The main Tema Township was constructed, and the Tema Harbour officially opened, in 1962. Over the following decades, Tema grew into the industrial hub of Ghana and one of the best-planned cities in West Africa, with a carefully-constructed road layout featuring landscaping and street lights. It boasted modern recreational centers and other social amenities rare among African cities at the time.<ref name=""/> 

A large population influx began in the 1960s owing to the city's employment opportunities, but the Tema Development Corporation was unable to construct housing and provide other services to meet the needs of this migration.<ref name="OTAL">[ OT Africa Line]</ref> The Tema Newtown district was overwhelmed by the sudden population growth, and became the poor cousin of Tema Township, receiving none of the latter's improved housing, geometrically-laid roads, or social amenities. Moreover, royalties paid by Tema Newtown's companies to evicted villagers have not been used due to a chieftaincy dispute. The area's fishing potential was thus not fully explored.<ref name="">[] Tema Newtown</ref>

The importance of Tema as an industrial hub is reflected by the fact that the [[Ghana Police Service]] maintains a special policing region devoted entirely to the city.<ref name=""/>

Tema is characterised by a dry [[equatorial climate]]. It lies in the driest part of southern Ghana, experiencing average annual rainfall of about {{convert|790|mm|in}}. Average temperatures are high year-round, often exceeding 30° [[Celsius]].<ref name="GHD"/>

{{Main|Tema Harbour}}
[[Image:US Navy 071118-N-0193M-829 Members of deck department use a crane to move vehicles and equipment off of the amphibious dock landing ship USS Fort McHenry (LSD 43).jpg|thumb|left|190px|The [[US Navy]] ship [[USS Fort McHenry (LSD-43)|''Fort McHenry'']] being unloaded in Tema.]]
Tema Port, which was opened in 1962, is the biggest of the two seaports in Ghana. It has a water-enclosed area of {{convert|1.7|km2|mi2}} and a total land area of {{convert|3.9|km2|mi2}}. Apart from handling Ghanaian imports and exports, it is also a traffic junction, dealing with transit cargo destined for the landlocked countries of [[Burkina Faso]], [[Mali]] and [[Niger]]. The port of Tema handles 80% of Ghana's import and export cargo, including the country's chief export, [[cocoa bean|cocao]]. 
[[File:Containerterminal in Tema, Ghana.jpg|thumb|right||230px||A container terminal at Tema Port.]]
The port has {{convert|5|km|mi}} of [[breakwaters]], 12 deepwater berths, an outsize [[oil tanker]] berth, a dockyard, warehouses, and transit sheds. The port has open and covered areas for the storage of cargo, including a 77,200-m² (7.72-hectare) paved area for the storage of containers, steel products and other conventional cargo. The port's container yard is capable of holding over 8,000 [[Twenty-foot equivalent unit|TEU]]s at any given time. The closed storage area, which is about 25,049 m² (2.51 hectares) in area, consists of six sheds with a total storage capacity of 50,000 tonnes of cargo. The port also includes a 100,000-[[Deadweight tonnage|dwt]] dry dock and slipway facility.<ref name="GPHA">[ Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority]</ref> The harbour is operated by the [[Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority]].

==Fishing harbour==
Ghana has a long history of Atlantic fishing. The Tema fishing harbour is at the eastern end of the city's commercial harbour. It comprises the Inner Fishing Harbour, the [[Canoe]] Basin, the Outer Fishing Harbour, and a commercial area with marketing and cold storage facilities.<ref name="OTAL"/>

The Inner Fishing Harbour was constructed along the Tema Main Port in 1962 to provide a handling facility for semi-industrial and industrial fishing vessels, and to encourage the development of the local [[fishing industry]]. In 1965, the Outer Fishing Harbour was constructed for bigger industrial vessels such as [[Fishing trawler|trawler]]s, [[tuna]] vessels, and deep-sea carriers.<ref name="OTAL"/> The trawlers operating in the area are 30–45 m long and are able to land 55-65 tonnes of fish (usually [[redfish]] and club and scad [[mackerel]]) per fishing trip. The tuna vessels range from smaller boats around 45–50 m in length, able to land 200-250 tonnes of catch, to larger versions with a length of 50–65 m and the ability to land up to 650 tonnes per fishing trip.<ref name="OTAL"/> The largest fishing vessels, the deep-sea carriers (with lengths of 90–105 m), are mostly [[chartered]] vessels which land between 700-1,400 tonnes of imported fish, mostly from [[Mauritania]] and [[Namibia]].<ref name="OTAL"/> Since 1984, the national catch has averaged about 200,000 to 300,000 metric tonnes per annum. Ghana's tuna catch has maintained a stable level of 30,000 tonnes per annum since 1981.<ref name="OTAL"/>

The Canoe Basin caters for the [[artisanal]] [[fishermen]]. The basin is normally occupied by about 400 [[canoe]]s. These are mainly two types: wooden vessels, locally called "Legelege", and metal vessels. The wooden canoes have lengths over all ([[Length overall|LOA]]) ranging between 30–70 m, mainly owned and operated by [[indigenous peoples|indigenous]] Ghanaians.<ref name="GPHA"/> Their operations peak during the months of June&ndash;September.  Main catches during this period are [[herring]]s and [[salmon]]. Artisanal canoe fishing is responsible for about 70% of the catch.<ref name="GPHA"/>

==Secondary schools==
SOS Hermann Gmeiner International College (SOS-HGIC), a private mixed [[boarding school]] catering to the 10th to 13th grades, is located in Tema. It utilises the [[International General Certificate of Secondary Education]] (IGCSE) for the 10th and 11th grades and the [[International Baccalaureate]] (IB) for the 12th and 13th grades. The school was headed by Margaret Nkrumah for over 15 years, and is now headed by Titi Ofei. Tema also has an [[international school]], Tema International School (TIS), and a senior high school, Tema Secondary School (TSS), which was built in September 1961.

The city's chief industrial products include [[aluminium]], [[steel]], processed fish, refined [[petroleum]], [[textile]]s, chemicals, food products, and [[cement]].<ref name="GW"/>

Major companies in Tema include:
* Volta Aluminium Company Ltd. (VALCO)
* Tema Oil Refinery (TOR)
* GHACEM Ghana Ltd.
* Nestle Ghana Ltd.
* Unilever Ghana Ltd.
* Pioneer Food Cannery Ltd. (PFC)
* Tex Styles Company Ltd. (formerly Ghana Textile Printing Company (GTP))
* ALUWORKS Ghana Ltd.
* Wahome Steel Ltd.

== Twin cities ==
* {{flagicon|United Kingdom}} - [[Royal Borough of Greenwich|Greenwich]], [[London]], [[United Kingdom]]
* {{flagicon|United States}} - [[San Diego, California|San Diego]], [[California]], [[United States]]
* {{flagicon|United States}} - [[Norfolk, Virginia|Roanoke]], [[Virginia]], [[United States]]


== External links ==
* [ Ghana-pedia webpage - Tema]
* [ Latest Tema Ghana News]
* [ MSN Map]

[[Category:Tema| ]]
[[Category:Populated places in the Greater Accra Region]]

[[da:Tema (Ghana)]]
[[es:Tema (Ghana)]]
[[ko:테마 (가나)]]
[[hr:Tema (Gana)]]
[[nl:Tema (stad)]]
[[ja:テマ (都市)]]
[[pl:Tema (miasto)]]
[[pt:Tema (Gana)]]
[[ro:Tema, Ghana]]
[[ru:Тема (Гана)]]
[[sv:Tema, Ghana]]

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